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Vol. 58. Issue 6.
Pages 584-593 (01 June 2003)
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Vol. 58. Issue 6.
Pages 584-593 (01 June 2003)
DOI: 10.1016/S1695-4033(03)78126-0
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Consumo de zumos de frutas y de bebidas refrescantes por niños y adolescentes en España. Implicaciones para la salud de su mal uso y abuso
Consumption of fruit juices and beverages by spanish children and teenagers: health implications of their poor use and abuse
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...
R. Tojo Sierra**
Corresponding author
pdrtojo@usc.es

Correspondencia: Departamento de Pediatría. Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago.Travesía La Choupana, s/n. 15706 Santiago de Compostela. España.
Comitéde Nutrición de la Asociación Española de Pediatría
Article information

En España se ha asistido en las últimas décadas a un aumentoimportante del consumo de bebidas blandas (zumosy bebidas refrescantes). Así, desde 1991 a 2001 el incrementode su consumo representa el 41,5 %, destacandoel 62,1 % para las bebidas de extractos y el 26,7 % para loszumos. Este incremento aumenta con la edad, y el consumoen los adolescentes (740 ml/día) duplica al de los preescolares(388 ml/día).El consumo elevado de bebidas blandas puede desplazaral de alimentos y bebidas de alta calidad nutricional comola leche. Existen múltiples evidencias que lo correlacionancon riesgo de retraso de crecimiento, fracaso de crecimientono orgánico, diarrea por alteración de la absorciónde hidratos de carbono, alergia, interacciones farmacológicas,obesidad, perfil lipídico aterotrombótico, alteraciónen el metabolismo de la glucosa y mineral óseo y efectosnegativos sobre la salud dental.Puesto que el consumo excesivo de este tipo de bebidasfavorece una dieta de baja calidad nutricional, es necesarioestablecer estrategias de intervención y prevención, enlas que se promocione el agua y la leche como las bebidasfundamentales en la dieta del niño y el adolescente, mientrasque las bebidas blandas deben ser una opción de consumoocasional.

Palabras claves:
Bebidas blandas
Zumos
Bebidas refrescantes
Bebidas no alcohólicas

In the last few decades, the consumption of soft drinks(fruit juices and beverages) in Spain has increased considerably.From 1991 to 2001, consumption of soft drinks increasedby 41.5%, that of extract-based drinks by 62.1%and that of juices by 26.7%. Consumption increases withage, with teenagers drinking twice as much (740 ml/day)as pre-school children (388 ml/day).High consumption of soft drinks may lead to underconsumptionof foods and drinks of high nutritional quality,such as milk. Multiple studies relate this phenomenonwith the risk of growth retardation, failure of non-organicgrowth, diarrhea produced by alterations in carbohydrateabsorption, allergy, pharmacological interactions,obesity, atherothrombotic lipidic profile, alterations inglucose and bone mineral metabolism and negative effectson dental health.Because excessive consumption of soft drinks favors adiet of low nutritional quality, intervention and preventionstrategies should be established to promote water andmilk as the basic drink in children's and teenagers' dietswhile soft-drinks should be consumed only occasionally.

Key words:
Soft drinks
Juices
Beverages
Nonalcoholic drinks
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