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Vol. 57. Núm. 4.
Páginas 345-353 (Octubre 2002)
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Vol. 57. Núm. 4.
Páginas 345-353 (Octubre 2002)
DOI: 10.1016/S1695-4033(02)77937-X
Acceso a texto completo
Adolescentes delincuentes: problemas de salud y recomendaciones sanitarias para centros de reforma juvenil
Delinquent adolescents: health problems and health care guidelines for juvenile correctional facilities
Visitas
...
G. Oliván Gonzalvo
Autor para correspondencia
DROLIVAN@santandersupernet.com

Correspondencia: Servicios de Pediatría y Adolescencia. Avda. de las Torres, 93, 1.° F. 50007 Zaragoza. España.
Servicios de Pediatría y Adolescencia. Instituto Aragonés de Servicios Sociales. Departamento de Salud, Consumo y Servicios Sociales. Gobierno de Aragón. Zaragoza. España.
Información del artículo

El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una revisión actualizada que sirva para mejorar el conocimiento sobre los problemas de salud preexistentes al ingreso y asociados con la estancia en centros de reforma juvenil que presentan los adolescentes delincuentes. Sobre esta base, se ofrecen unas recomendaciones para el cuidado de la salud física y mental y para la educación en la salud de estos jóvenes que sean de utilidad para los profesionales sanitarios que los atienden mientras permanecen en custodia y, por extensión, para los que los atienden en el ámbito ambulatorio.

De la bibliografía consultada, el 63 % de los estudios se han elaborado en Estados Unidos, el 24% en Europa occidental (España, Reino Unido, Holanda, Bélgica, Suecia y Finlandia), el 8 % en Australia y el 5 % en Canadá. En estos estudios no se observan diferencias cualitativas apreciables en los problemas de salud que con mayor frecuencia presentan estos jóvenes, coincidiendo en que las necesidades sanitarias prioritarias son la provisión de servicios preventivos y/o terapéuticos odontológicos, psiquiátricos, de inmunización y de enfermedades infecciosas y de servicios para la educación en la salud.

El fracaso en la identificación e intervención precoz de las necesidades sanitarias de estos adolescentes no sólo puede afectar adversamente su calidad de vida en el futuro desarrollo físico, emocional e intelectual, sino que también puede conducir a incrementar las dificultades para su rehabilitación y reinserción social.

Palabras clave:
Adolescencia
Delincuencia juvenil Centro de reforma juvenil Estado de salud
Salud física
Salud mental Cuidado de la salud
Pruebas diagnósticas
Inmunizaciones
Guía

The aim of this article was to provide an update that would serve to increase knowledge of health problems among juvenile delinquents before and during incarceration in juvenile correctional centers. Recommendations are made for the care of mental and physical health and for the health education of these teenagers that could be useful for health professionals providing health care to these teenagers while in custody as well as for those seeing them in the ambulatory setting.

From the literature consulted, 63 % of studies have been performed in the United States, 24% in Western Europe (Spain, United Kingdom, Holland, Belgium, Sweden, Finland), 8% in Australia and 5% in Canada. These studies show no appreciable qualitative differences in the health problems most frequently presented by these teenagers and there is agreement that the areas that should be prioritized are the provision of preventive and/or therapeutic dental care, as well as programs for psychiatric care, immunization, infectious diseases and health education.

Failure to identify the health requirements of these teenagers and to provide early interventions can not only adversely effect their quality of life and their future physical, emotional and intellectual development but can also make their rehabilitation and reintegration into society more difficult.

Key words:
Adolescence
Juvenile delinquency
Juvenile reform center
Health status
Physical health
Mental health
Health care
Diagnostic tests
Immunizations
Guide
El Texto completo está disponible en PDF
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