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Vol. 54. Núm. 3.
Páginas 213-221 (Marzo 2001)
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Vol. 54. Núm. 3.
Páginas 213-221 (Marzo 2001)
Acceso a texto completo
Instrumentos de evaluación de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud en niños y adolescentes con asma
Instruments for measuring health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with asthma
Visitas
...
X. Badia Llacha,
Autor para correspondencia
xbadia@cochrane.es

Correspondencia: Outcomes Research Unit. Servicio de Epidemiología Clínica y Salud Pública. Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau. Barcelona. Casa de Convalecència. Fundació Doctor Robert. Antoni M.a Claret, 171. 08041 Barcelona.
, A. Benavides Ruizb, L. Rajmil Rajmilb
a Outcomes Research Unit. Servicio de Epidemiología Clínica y Salud Pública. Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau. Barcelona
b Institut Universitari de Salut Pública de Catalunya
Información del artículo
Objetivos

Los instrumentos de evaluación de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud (CVRS) están demostrando ser útiles para valorar de una forma más integral la enfermedad y su repercusión en la vida diaria del paciente. En esta revisión se pretende describir los instrumentos disponibles en estos momentos para la valoración de la CVRS en niños y adolescentes con asma.

Métodos

Se ha revisado la base documental MEDLINE desde 1980 hasta 2000, así como la página web de la American Thoracic Society y la revista Quality of Life Research. Se han seleccionado aquellos trabajos que incluían instrumentos que medían la CVRS en niños con asma y que cumpliesen con los criterios de selección de multidimensionalidad, puntuación mediante escalas ordinales estandarizadas y que evaluasen las propiedades psicométricas.

Resultados

De los 21 instrumentos inicialmente identificados se excluyeron siete por no cumplir alguno de los criterios de selección, quedando finalmente en la revisión 14 instrumentos, 6 genéricos para niños (CHQ, KINDL, PedsQL, FS-IIR, RAND y CHIP-AE) y ocho específicos para niños con asma (SSES, ASDQ, AMA, CAQ, LAQCA, PACQLQ, PAQLQ y APBC). Los instrumentos genéricos miden las cuatro dimensiones básicas (síntomas, función física, emocional y social), mientras que la mayoría de los específicos están enfocados más en la sintomatología y la función física. La fiabilidad (alfa de Cronbach) y la validez de constructo son las propiedades psicométricas mejor medidas en todos los cuestionarios. La sensibilidad al cambio es la propiedad menos valorada en general, y únicamente han demostrado ser sensibles a los cambios tres instrumentos específicos (LAQCQ, PACQLQ y PAQLQ). Todos los instrumentos tienen la opción de ser autocumplimentados. Sólo hay dos genéricos (FS-IIR y RAND) validados en la cultura española. En la actualidad están en proceso de validación dos genéricos (PedsQL y CHIP-AE) y dos específicos (PACQLQ y PAQLQ)

Conclusión

Actualmente la disponibilidad de instrumentos que midan la CVRS en niños con asma en nuestro medio es limitada. En breve se dispondrá de la versión validada en nuestra cultura del PedsQL (genérico) y del PAQLQ (específico), que son dos instrumentos que ya han demostrado en otros países ser útiles para medir la CVRS en niños asmáticos.

Palabras clave:
Calidad de vida
Asma
Cuestionario
Niños y adolescentes
Objectives

Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are proving to be useful in providing a comprehensive evaluation of illness and its effects on patient's daily lives. The aim of this review is to describe HRQOL instruments that are currently available to measure the HRQOL in children and adolescents with asthma.

Methods

The MEDLINE database from 1980 to 2000 was reviewed, as well as the website of the American Thoracic Society and the Quality of Life Research journal. Studies that included instruments measuring HRQOL in children with asthma were included as long as the instruments included met the selection criteria of multidimensionality, scoring was through standardized ordinal scales and psychometric properties were evaluated.

Results

Of the 21 instruments initially identified 7 were excluded because they did not meet one or more of the selection criteria. Fourteen instruments were included in the final review, 6 were generic instruments for children (CHQ, KINDL, PedsQL, FS-IIR, RAND and CHIP-AE) and eight were specific to children with asthma (SSES, ASDQ, AMA, CAQ, LAQCA, PACQLQ, PAQLQ and APBC). The generic instruments measured the four basic aspects of HRQOL (symptoms, physical, mental and social functioning), whilst the majority of the specific instruments focused more closely on symptom measurement and physical functioning. Reliability (Cronbach's alpha) and construct validity were the most widely tested psychometric properties. In general, sensitivity to change was the least widely tested property and only three disease-specific instruments were sensitive to change (LAQCQ, PACQLQ and PAQLQ). All the instruments could be self-administered. Only two of the generic instruments (FS-IIR and RAND) had been validated for use in Spain. At present two more generic instruments (PedsQL and CHIP-AE) and two specific instruments (PACQLQ and PAQLQ) are currently being validated.

Conclusion

Theavailability of instruments to measure the HRQOL of children with asthma in Spain is currently limited. Validated versions of the PedsQL (generic) and PAQLQ (specific) instruments, both of which have been demonstrated to be useful in other countries, should shortly be available to measure the HRQOL of children with asthma in Spain

Key words:
Quality of life
Asthma
Questionnaire
Children and adolescents
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