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Vol. 54. Núm. 1.
Páginas 58-64 (Enero 2001)
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Vol. 54. Núm. 1.
Páginas 58-64 (Enero 2001)
DOI: 10.1016/S1695-4033(01)78650-X
Acceso a texto completo
Síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño en la infancia
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in childhood
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J.R. Villa Asensia,
Autor para correspondencia
jrvilla@nacom.es

Correspondencia: Sección de Neumología. Hospital Infantil Niño Jesús. Avda. Menéndez Pelayo, 65. 28009 Madrid
, J. de Miguel Díezb
a Sección de Neumología. Hospital Infantil Niño Jesús
b Servicio de Neumología. Hospital Universitario de Getafe. Madrid
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Información del artículo

El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) es una entidad clínica bien conocida en los adultos pero que ha sido menos estudiada, hasta ahora, en la edad pediátrica. Diferentes estudios han mostrado que el SAOS infantil tiene una alta prevalencia (entre el 1 y el 3%) y que sus consecuencias pueden ser importantes. Existen diversos factores predisponentes para padecer SAOS durante la infancia como la hipertrofia adenoamigdalar, enfermedades neuromusculares o síndromes como el de Down o Pierre Robin. El diagnóstico definitivo se realiza por polisomnografía y resultan de indudable utilidad otros métodos como los registros cardiorrespiratorios o la pulsioximetría nocturna cuando se utilizan de forma adecuada. La adenoamigdalectomía desempeña un papel primordial en su tratamiento. La presión positiva continua en la vía respiratoria (CPAP) nasal puede ser una alternativa en aquellos niños que no responden a la cirugía o en los que tienen alteraciones craneofaciales, y en casos muy seleccionados, la administración de oxígeno nocturno puede ser útil.

Palabras clave:
índrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño
Polisomnografía
Pulsioximetría
Adenoidectomía
Amigdalectomía
CPAP
Oxígeno

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a wellknown clinical entity in adults but until now it has been less well-studied in children. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of pediatric OSAS is high (between 1% and 3%) and its consequences can be serious. Major risk factors for OSAS in children include adeno-tonsillar hypertrophy, neuromuscular disease and syndromes such as Down's or Pierre-Robin's syndrome. Definitive diagnosis is by nocturnal polysomnography while other methods such as cardio-respiratory records and nocturnal pulse oximetry are undoubtedly useful. Adenotonsillectomy plays a major role in the treatment of OSAS. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure is an alternative in children who show poor response to surgical treatment or in those with craniofacial alterations. In a few cases, nocturnal oxygen administration can be useful.

Key words:
leep apnea syndrome
Polysomnography
Pulse oximetry
Child
Adenoidectomy
Tonsillectomy
Continuouspositive airway pressure
Oxygen
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