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Vol. 57. Núm. 6.
Páginas 540-546 (Diciembre 2002)
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Vol. 57. Núm. 6.
Páginas 540-546 (Diciembre 2002)
Acceso a texto completo
Síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño en el niño: una responsabilidad del pediatra
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: the responsibility of pediatricians
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E. Verrilloa, R. Cilveti Portillob, E. Estivill Sanchob,
Autor para correspondencia
estivill@ctv.es

Correspondencia: Unitat d'Alteracions del Son. Institut Universitari Dexeus. P.° Bonanova, 61, 1.° 3.a. 08017 Barcelona. España
a Departamento de Scienze Neurologiche e Psichiatriche dell’ età infantile. Centro per i disturbi del Sonno in età Pediatrica. Università di Roma La Sapienza. Roma. Italia
b Unitat d'Alteracions del Son. Institut Universitari Dexeus. Barcelona. España
Información del artículo
Resumen
Bibliografía
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El síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño (SAOS) en los niños es una enfermedad respiratoria frecuente y potencialmente grave, dispone de un diagnóstico fiable y de un tratamiento muy efectivo. El SAOS es un trastorno respiratorio relacionado con el sueño, forma parte del síndrome de apneas-hipoapneas del sueño. Afecta al 1-3% de los niños y, además de las complicaciones cardiopulmonares, puede producir retraso en el crecimiento, dificultades de aprendizaje y se ha asociado con el cuadro de déficit de atención con hiperactividad. A partir de la sospecha clínica, la polisomnografía es en la actualidad la única prueba que permite diagnosticar y cuantificar la gravedad del SAOS en niños. La adenoamigdalectomía es el tratamiento de elección en la mayoría de los casos, con una efectividad que supera el 85 %. El presente artículo es una revisión actualizada de la evidencia acumulada sobre la clínica, la etiología, el diagnóstico, las complicaciones y el tratamiento del SAOS en niños. El objetivo principal de este artículo es alertar a los pediatras sobre su papel esencial en la detección precoz de este síndrome, sobre todo a partir de los niños que roncan, así como orientar sobre el protocolo que debe seguirse para llegar al diagnóstico y al tratamiento definitivos.

Palabras clave:
Síndrome de apnea obstructiva del sueño
Niños
Revisión
Amigdalectomía
Adenoidectomía
Polisomnografía
Ronquido
Alteraciones del sueño

Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children is a frequent and potentially serious respiratory disorder, it has a reliable diagnosis and treatment is highly effective. OSAS is a respiratory sleep-related disorder that forms part of sleep apnea-hypoapnea syndrome. The syndrome affects between 1% and 3% of children. In addition to its cardiopulmonary complications, it can retard growth and increase the risk of hyperactivity and learning difficulties. It has also been associated with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity. When OSAS is suspected, up-to-date nocturnal polysomnography is the gold standard for the diagnosis and quantification of severity of childhood OSAS. In most children the treatment of choice is adenotonsillectomy, which has a success rate of more than 85%. We provide an up-to-date review of the evidence on the clinical features, etiology, complications and treatment of OSAS in children. The main objective of this review is to alert pediatricians to their essential role in the early detection of this syndrome, especially among children who snore, and to provide a clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and definitive treatment of these children.

Key words:
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome
Children
Review
Tonsillectomy
Adenoidectomy
Polysomnography
Snoring
Sleep Disorders
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Copyright © 2002. Asociación Española de Pediatría
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